Thursday, November 15, 2018

Oregon Apple Day

November 15, 1915 was “Oregon Apple Day” at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco.  Some Oregon apples had been on display from the time the exposition opened.  The Weekly Gazette-Times reported (November 12, 1915) that “...throughout the season attendants have been continually besieged with the plea for an Oregon apple or just a sample of the fruit... countless numbers have offered to buy but the attendants could only give the addresses of Oregon growers who could supply the demand.” 

To address this demand, Oregon growers in the Willamette Valley shipped 50 boxes, each containing approximately 96 apples, to the fair.
 H. J. Moore apple orchard near Philomath area, circa 1910.

 Picking apples for the Oregon Apple Company,
Benton County west of Monroe, circa 1915.
Growers from other parts of the state also shipped apples so that between 25,000 and 30,000 apples were available to distribute free to fair goers on Apple Day. People obviously liked the apples as some growers had reported increased sales in the San Francisco market of 100 percent.  

By Martha Fraundorf, Volunteer for Benton County Historical Society, Philomath, Oregon

Tuesday, November 13, 2018

Veteran's Day

Sunday, November 11 is the 100th anniversary of the signing of the Armistice which ended World War I. The agreement between the Allies and Germany included a cessation of all fighting at 11 o'clock on November 11, a withdrawal of German forces from occupied areas, a surrender of equipment and a return of prisoners. Similar agreements had already been signed by Germany's allies – Bulgaria, Turkey, and the Austrian empire. The Armistice was renewed three times while the parties negotiated the peace treaty signed on June 28, 1919. 

In November of 1919, President Wilson proclaimed November 11 as “Armistice Day”  to be commemorated with parades, public meetings and a brief moment of reflection at 11 am. In 1926, Congress passed a resolution calling for an annual time of “thanksgiving and prayer and exercises designated to perpetuate peace through good will and mutual understanding between nations.” They made it a national legal holiday in 1938.

Over time, the focus changed from celebrating peace to honoring those who served.  In 1954, the holiday was renamed Veterans Day to recognize all veterans, not just those from World War I.
Alice May Wyatt Henderson and Sarah Hammer made this banner in 1918 to honor those from Philomath who served in World War I:  Enos Loggan Keezel, Ward Haines, Alonzo Miller, Donald Clark, Ralph Green, Clarence Green, Ayne Baldwin, Weir Baldwin, Harrison Wallace, Charles Stovall, Roy Willoughby, Frank Becker, Harry Felher, L. Elmer Lemaster, Rufus Lemaster, Hugh Kellog, Charles Smith. The gold star by Ralph Green's name indicates that he died during the war.

A program from September 15, 1918, lists men from the Alpine area serving in the military. Some were part of the American Expeditionary Forces in Europe, some were in the navy and others were in camps in the United States. Names include Merle G. Howard, Frank Barker, Raymond Reeves, Clarence S. Webber, William J. Confer, Frank Williams, Fulton Wooldridge, Raleigh Taylor, Ben A. Roth, Leroy McCallum, William F. Tompkins, Carl A. Harlan, T. S. Stoddard,William Seymour. Herman Anderson, Bliss Byers, Harry Straub, Andrew George Ancey, Clarence Flowers, John S. McCloskey, James William Peek, Albert J. Ruiz, Fred Calahan, Roy Eachus, Guy Thorne, J. G. Paull, Alexander Skinner, Charles Farris, William F. Dunaven.

Thursday, November 1, 2018

Daylight Savings Time

Reset your clocks back to standard time on Sunday, November 4!   Daylight saving time ends at 2 a.m.
Although this has become a standard practice, it would have seemed new and strange to the owner of this clock, manufactured in March of 1918.  
Westclox Big Ben by the Western Clock Company, LaSalle, Illinois

The use of daylight saving time was one of many innovations introduced during the circa 1920 period. In 1916, the German Empire advanced their clocks an hour in order to conserve on scarce coal supplies during World War I.  Within a month, the Allies had done the same.  The United States did not adopt the practice until March of 1918, with daylight savings time to run from March 31 to October 27.  The practice was unpopular with rural communities and with rank and file industrial workers who effectively lobbied for the law’s repeal in 1919.  Urban retailers and recreation interests like the practice and were successful in retaining it in some areas such as Chicago and New York City.  

Daylight saving time returned on a national level in 1942 when it was dubbed “war time” and lasted without interruption until 1945.   Year-round daylight saving time was also used during the energy crisis of 1974-1975. To end the hodge-podge of local laws, in 1966 Congress passed the Uniform Time Act which standardized the used from the second Sunday in March to the first Sunday in November.  States could pass a law opting out if it applied to the whole state.  Only Arizona and Hawaii have done so. 

The original rationale for daylight saving time was to save on electricity.  Studies have shown that by 1970 the savings were small (about one percent) and may even be negative due to the greater use of air conditioning during daylight hours.